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Ushuaia | Argentina
El clima de Ushuaia es frio (sin embargo bosques magallanicos bordean la ciudad), con una temperatura media anual de 5,7 °C y una escasa oscilacion anual que va de 1,5 en julio (Invierno) a 9,4 °C en enero (Verano). Son extranas temperaturas de mas de 25 °C en verano y de -12 °C en invierno. Record de temperatura mas baja (-20°C) [julio] record de temperatura en verano de 30 °C y record de temperatura mas baja en verano -6 °C [febrero]. Las precipitaciones, que en invierno suelen ser en forma de nieve, son de 524 mm anuales y se reparten equitativamente a lo largo del ano. En promedio la ciudad registra 160 dias lluviosos al ano, y hay algunos dias nublados y brumosos. Debido a que las temperaturas son bajas todo el ano existe poca evaporacion. Nevando incluso en verano.
El clima pertenece al Sub-Polar oceanico. Vientos muy fuertes azotan la ciudad, y esa es la razon por la cual los arboles desprotegidos de las tempestades crecen siguiendo la direccion del viento, y por lo tanto son llamados "arboles-bandera" por la inclinacion que son forzados a tomar.
Ushuaia is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and Islands and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today at about 64,000. It is the only municipality in the Department of Ushuaia, which has an area of 9,390 km2 (3,625 sq mi).
The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yamana people had for the area. Much of the early history of the city and its hinterland is described in great detail in Lucas Bridges’s book Uttermost Part of the Earth.
For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil’s Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible. The prisoners thus became forced colonists and spent much of their time cutting wood in the forest around the prison and building the town. They also built a railway to the settlement, now a tourist attraction known as the End of the World Train (Tren del Fin del Mundo), the southernmost railway in the world.
Ushuaia is surrounded by Magellanic subpolar forests; on the hills around the town, the following indigenous trees are local to the area: Drimys winteri (Winter’s bark), Maytenus magellanica (hard log mayten) and several species of Nothofagus that give to the landscape a magnificent greenness.
The climate is maritime subarctic. Average temperatures coldest month: 1 °C (33 °F) and warmest month: 9 °C (48 °F)
Record low -20 °C (-4 °F) (July), record high 31 °C (87.8 °F) (December) and record low ever recorded in summer -6 °C (21 °F) (February). Towns in the world with similar climate include Thorshavn, Faroe Islands; Dutch Harbor, Alaska; Reykjavik, Iceland.
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Man has created codes to keep secrets and has broken codes to learn those secrets since the time of the Pharaohs. For 4,000 years, fierce battles have been waged between codemakers and codebreakers, and the story of these battles is civilization’s secret history, the hidden account of how wars were won and lost, diplomatic intrigues foiled, business secrets stolen, governments ruined, computers hacked. From the XYZ Affair to the Dreyfus Affair, from the Gallic War to the Persian Gulf, from Druidic runes and the kaballah to outer space, from the Zimmermann telegram to Enigma to the Manhattan Project, codebreaking has shaped the course of human events to an extent beyond any easy reckoning. Once a government monopoly, cryptology today touches everybody. It secures the Internet, keeps e-mail private, maintains the integrity of cash machine transactions, and scrambles TV signals on unpaid-for channels. David Kahn’s The Codebreakers takes the measure of what codes and codebreaking have meant in human history in a single comprehensive account, astonishing in its scope and enthralling in its execution. Hailed upon first publication as a book likely to become the definitive work of its kind, The Codebreakers has more than lived up to that prediction: it remains unsurpassed. With a brilliant new chapter that makes use of previously classified documents to bring the book thoroughly up to date, and to explore the myriad ways computer codes and their hackers are changing all of our lives, The Codebreakers is the skeleton key to a thousand thrilling true stories of intrigue, mystery, and adventure. It is a masterpiece of the historian’s art.
“Few false ideas have more firmly gripped the minds of so many intelligent men than the one that, if they just tried, they could invent a cipher that no one could break,” writes David Kahn in this massive (almost 1,200 pages) volume. Most of The Codebreakers focuses on the 20th century, especially World War II. But its reach is long. Kahn traces cryptology’s origins to the advent of writing. It seems that as soon as people learned how to record their thoughts, they tried to figure out ways of keeping them hidden. Kahn covers everything from the theory of ciphering to the search for “messages” from outer space. He concludes with a few thoughts about encryption on the Internet.